The demand for the opening Japan and the conclusion of various treaties
As a result of the Opium War which broke out during the Qing dynasty of China, the Qing dynasty was forced to cede Hong Kong, and open 5 of the ports including Guangzhou and Shanghai. The war was reported to Japan by a Dutch ship that arrived in the port of Nagasaki. However, the shogunate had no adequate means to handle the situation. Meanwhile, the Dutch government submitted an official letter to Japan demanding the opening of Japan. The first official delegate was dispatched in 1846 and Commodore Matthew Calbraith Perry from the US arrived in Uraga in 1853. Because the movement for the opening of Japan became intense, it led to the conclusion of the first treaty of Japan “Treaty of Peace and Amity between the United States of America and the Empire of Japan”. It was followed by other friendship treaties with England and also with the Netherlands.
In 1856, the first United States Consul General to Japan Townsend Harris arrived in Japan to conclude the Treaty of Amity and Commerce. While Harris navigated the negotiation aggressively with threat of military force, the Edo Shogunate finally signed the treaty in 1858. This was in practice the collapse of the seclusion policy and also led to the downfall of the Edo shogunate.
Discontinue Dutch East India Company
The conclusion of the Convention of Peace and Amity between the United States of America and the Empire of Japan in 1856 brought the Dutch officials a lift of trade restrictions. Besides; Japanese people also were allowed to enter Dejima freely by the conclusion of the Japan and the Netherlands Trade Treaty. Along with this, the Dutch Trading Post on Dejima came to function as the Netherlands consular office as well. The Netherlands Trading Company took over the transactions of trade. In this way, the Dutch Trading Post ended its long history. Dejima was incorporated into the foreign settlement in 1866.
Disappearance of Dejima
After the opening of Japan, Dejima’s shape was changed due to the renovation of the periphery of Sea Gate on the west side and the expansion of the south side into a modernized trade city. The periphery of Dejima was reclaimed and 18m of the north side was lost due to the construction to reroute Nakashima River, which started in 1885. The fan-shape of Dejima finally was no longer visible due to the harbor reclamation project in 1904.